NAICS CANADA CODE: 113311 Logging

113312 Contract Logging

Description of Operations:

Logging operations consist of cutting trees and sending the cut wood to the next phase of the operation. Logging involves building access roads to get into the trees as well as transportation to remove the trees. Logging may be done to clear land for development or road construction, may be done to thin a forest for healthier growth and fire prevention, or may be done for the value of the lumber. The reasons will impact the profit but not the basic operations.

Logging may occur on owned land, private land or public land. If on public or private land, permission must be gained prior to the operation. Governmental land logging, especially in old growth forests, has met with considerable protests lately and must be taken into consideration due to potential damage to workers and equipment.

  • Property exposure consists of the yard operations where the equipment is kept. The major fire concern is the repair operations that may take place because gasoline and other fuel sources will be present. Any welding or painting must be done away from all flammable liquids, especially the gasoline. If the areas are remote, there should be adequate fire fighting equipment readily available. Good housekeeping, especially disposal of oily rags, is essential for fire prevention.

    Standing timber is a property exposure with considerable value. Fire and wind are the major concerns although theft of valuable trees must be considered along with vandalism, especially from activists.

  • Crime exposure is due to Employee Dishonesty. Certain trees have a very high value and may be stolen by employees. There should be an inventory of the stand and records kept of cuts. The job duties of ordering, billing and disbursements should be kept separate. Annual outside audits should be conducted.

  • Inland marine exposure is the logging sledges and other equipment used in the cutting process. Overheating of equipment is a major concern especially during dry conditions. Fire extinguishing equipment should be taken on any job in order to stop a small fire from turning in to a major forest fire.

  • Occupier’s liability depends on who owns the stand. The major concern is fire since a forest fire can imperil the rest of the forest plus nearby houses. There is also the concern of falling trees on unsuspecting hikers and workers. There must be warnings and markings as to where work is being performed to prevent inadvertent trespassing on the job site. Equipment should be secured and deactivated when the workers leave the site to prevent an attractive nuisance hazard.

  • Products liability is very low since this the beginning of the process, not the end.

  • Environmental impairment depends on the ownership of the stand. If the risk owns the timber, there should be a well-planned reclamation program to reforest and prevent erosion. There is also a concern that gasoline could be spilled during the logging process.

  • Automobile liability is very high. Exposures from the large, heavy vehicles carrying full loads of logs result in high potential for loss, should collision and overturn occur or should the load spill onto a public road. Training and prior record of drivers, as well as condition and maintenance of vehicles, are the main items to consider. Safety awareness and planning, adequate controls, and preparation are all items to evaluate. The tie-down procedure is vital and all must be well versed in chaining and securing the load. Careful review must be made of overpasses as they deliver the logs in order to verify that they don’t exceed height limitations. All driving records must be checked regularly and be acceptable.

  • Workplace safety exposure is also very high, both in frequency and severity. Exposure exists from falls, cuts, insects, snakes, animals, exposure to weather conditions, and the potential for injury from the operation of saws and loggers. The environmental activists must be considered another risk factor as they sabotage trees and logging efforts. There must be a commitment to safety, training and upkeep of equipment. Another important concern is the use of independent contractors. Are they truly independent contractors? Contracts and agreements should be carefully reviewed, before an accident happens.

Minimum recommended insurance coverage for Logging Operations  :

Building, Business Personal Property, Business Income, Accounts Receivable, Computers, Contactors’ Equipment, Goods in Transit, Valuable Papers, Dishonesty, Disappearance and Destruction, General Liability, Environmental Impairment, Umbrella, Business Auto Liability and Physical Damage, Non-Ownership Automobile

Other Insurance coverages to consider for Logging Operations:

Employment Practices Liability