Property exposures come from the heating, refrigeration, and automated milking and processing equipment and presence of flammables such as grain, feed, and bedding materials. Dairies are commonly located in rural areas with limited firefighting resources and water supply. All machinery and equipment must be inspected and maintained regularly to avoid wear and tear or overheating losses. Wiring must be up to date and of sufficient capacity. All machinery should be grounded to prevent static buildup and discharge. Electrical fixtures should be dust and moisture proof. Due to its combustibility, an ammonia detection system should be in place if ammonia is used as a refrigerant. Dairy products must meet extremely high sterility requirements, with most processes taking place in closed containers to prevent contamination. This sterile environment helps control most fire exposures. However, if a small fire does begin, a total loss could occur as provincial, local, or federal regulations may require the disposal of major portions of stock and raw materials that have been exposed to fire, smoke, heat or water. Spoilage losses can be severe if the refrigeration and cooling equipment malfunctions or loses power. Controls, such as alarms, must be in place to warn if power is out or if temperature rises in coolers and freezers. Emergency backup systems, such as emergency generators, should provide power if an outage or shutdown occurs. The business income exposure can be very high as some production equipment may be difficult to repair or replace quickly.